Mystery Wonders
Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 in) along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has reached ?89.2 °C (?128.6 °F), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is ?63 °C (?81 °F). There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, Antarctica was only first sighted in 1820, by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny, who sighted the Fimbul ice shelf. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.


Story continues below !










Antarctica has no indigenous population and there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa—had existed since the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD), who suggested the idea to preserve the symmetry of all known landmasses in the world. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of the name "Antarctica" is how it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, and it was because of a mistake made by people who decided that a significant landmass would not be found farther south than Australia. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularizing the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia. He justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis (1814) by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude; the name Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the geographical importance of this country and of its situation on the globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable than any other which could have been selected. European maps continued to show this hypothesized land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773, in December 1773 and again in January 1774. Cook came within about 120 km (75 mi) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773. The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by three individuals. According to various organizations (the National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego, and other sources), ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820: von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Imperial Russian Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (a sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut). The expedition led by von Bellingshausen and Lazarev on the ships Vostok and Mirny reached a point within 32 km (20 mi) from Queen Maud's Land and recorded the sight of an ice shelf at 69°21?28?S 2°14?50?W, which became known as the Fimbul ice shelf. This happened three days before Bransfield sighted land, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. The first documented landing on Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis, apparently at Hughes Bay, near Cape Charles, in West Antarctica on 7 February 1821, although some historians dispute this claim. The first recorded and confirmed landing was at Cape Adair in 1895. On 22 January 1840, two days after the discovery of the coast west of the Balleny Islands, some members of the crew of the 1837–40 expedition of Jules Dumont d'Urville disembarked on the highest islet of a group of rocky islands about 4 km from Cape Géodésie on the coast of Adélie Land where they took some mineral, algae and animal samples. In December 1839, as part of the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–42 conducted by the United States Navy (sometimes called the "Ex. Ex.", or "the Wilkes Expedition"), an expedition sailed from Sydney, Australia, into the Antarctic Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands" on 25 January 1840. That part of Antarctica was later named "Wilkes Land", a name it retains to this day. Explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named after him) in 1841. He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf. Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror. Mercator Cooper landed in East Antarctica on 26 January 1853. During the Nimrod Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole. Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931. In addition, Shackleton himself and three other members of his expedition made several firsts in December 1908 – February 1909: they were the first humans to traverse the Ross Ice Shelf, the first to traverse the Transantarctic Mountains (via the Beardmore Glacier), and the first to set foot on the South Polar Plateau. An expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole on 14 December 1911, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier.[33] One month later, the doomed Scott Expedition reached the pole. Richard E. Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. He is credited with implementing mechanised land transport on the continent and conducting extensive geological and biological research. However, it was not until 31 October 1956 that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George J. Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there. The first person to sail single-handed to Antarctica was the New Zealander David Henry Lewis, in 1972, in the 10-metre steel sloop Ice Bird.




you might be interested


Iron Pillar Delhi

Spontaneous combustion

Shroud of Turin

Hitler fled to Argentina

Terracotta Army

Grand Canyon

Black Hole

Ark of the Covenant

Fly Geyser

El Chupacabra

Lighthouse of Alexandria

Area 51

Lost Heracleion City

Alien Skulls ?

Angel Falls

Mount Nemrut

Blue Belize Hole

Antarctica

Sailing Stones

Sigiriya Sri Lanka

Red Rain

Columnar Basalt

Leshan Giant Buddha China

Colosseum Rome Italy

Wonder Rock

Colossus of Rhodes

Bagan Myanmar

Stonehenge Stones

Waterfalls Rio Tulija

The Ancient City of Mes Aynak

Underwater Cancun

Natural Zhangjiaje

KAMPUNG KUANTAN FIREFLIES

Largest Crab Ever

K2 Pakistan

Easter Island Secrets

The Sahara Desert

Kittiwake Shipwreck

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Acropolis of Athens

Giant Stone Balls

Nasca Lines

Great Pyramid of Giza

Valley of the Kings

Santorini

Taj Mahal

Aurora

Two Headed Snake

Ancient Atomic Bomb India

Everglades Park

Rio de Janeiro

Katmai Crater Lake

Mount Rushmore

Stone Forest

Lencois Mranhenses Brasil

Tutankhamun Mummy

Pamukkale

Statue of Zeus at Olympia

Yellowstone Park

Lost Kingdom Of Cleopatra

Reed Flute Cave

Borobudur Temple

Kukulkan Pyramid Chichen Itza

Memnon Colossi

Banaue Rice Terraces

Zhangye Danxia

Door to Hell

Underwater Pyramids off Cuba

Pompeii After Eruption

Arizona Wave

Parícutin Vulcan

The Matterhorn

Leaning Tower of Pisa

Bermuda Triangle

3,800 year old mummy Xiahoe

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Timbuktu

Twin Town

Underwater Museum Cancún Mexico

Ayers Rock

Blue Neon Waves

The Great Wall of China

Machu Picchu

Tunguska Explosion Russia

Pillars of weathering

GREAT SPHINX OF GIZA

The Wonder Cave

Famous Petra

Valley of Love Ireland

Angkor Wat

Vimana Flying Machine

Plitvice Lakes

200 yo mummy not dead

Crystal Underwater Pyramid Cuba

Victoria Falls




Stonehenge
Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria
GREAT SPHINX OF GIZA
Leaning Tower of Pisa
Underwater Museum Cancún Mexico
Crystal Underwater Pyramid Cuba
Pompeii After Eruption
Underwater Pyramids off Cuba
Rio de Janeiro
Blue Belize Hole
Easter Island Secrets
Lencois Mranhenses Brasil
Colosseum Rome Italy
Leshan Giant Buddha China
Valley of Love Ireland
Kukulkan Pyramid Chichen Itza
The Great Wall of China
Underwater Cancun
Machu Picchu
Grand Canyon
Angkor Wat
Valley of the Kings
Angel Falls
Yellowstone
Sahara Desert
Matterhorn Mountain
Aurora
Victoria Falls
Parícutin
Pamukkale
Lost Heracleion City
Black Hole
Largest Crab Ever
Ayers Rock
The Wonder Cave
Mount Rushmore
Memnon Colossi
3,800 year old mummy Xiahoe
Arizona Wave
Wonder Rock
Lost Kingdom Of Cleopatra
Tutankhamun Mummy
Twin Town
Red Rain
Borobudur Temple
Banaue Rice Terraces
Sailing Stones
Spontaneous combustion
Paracas Skulls
Famous Petra
Terracotta Army
Kittiwake Shipwreck
Waterfalls Rio Tulija
Fly Geyser
K2 Pakistan
Natural Zhangjiaje
KAMPUNG KUANTAN FIREFLIES
Stone Forest
Katmai Crater Lake
Reed Flute Cave
Bagan Myanmar
Sigiriya Sri Lanka
Columnar Basalt
Blue Neon Waves
Bermuda Triangle
Shroud of Turin
Nasca Lines
Ark of the Covenant
El Chupacabra
Area 51
Iron Pillar Delhi
Tunguska Explosion Russia
Door to Hell
Everglades Park
Taj Mahal
Timbuktu
Zhangye Danxia
Two Headed Snake
Acropolis of Athens
Plitvice Lakes
200 yo mummy not dead
Pillars of weathering
Antarctica
Santorini
Hitler fled to Argentina
Ancient Atomic Bomb India
Mount Nemrut
Vimana Flying Machine
The Ancient City of Mes Aynak
Giant Stone Balls



back to top