Mystery Wonders
The Kerala red rain

The Kerala red rain phenomenon was a blood rain (red rain) event that occurred from 25 July to 23 September 2001, when heavy downpours of red-coloured rain fell sporadically on the southern Indian state of Kerala, staining clothes pink.1 Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.234 Coloured rain was also reported in Kerala in 1896 and several times since,5 most recently in June 2012, and from 15 November 2012 to 27 December 2012 in eastern and north-central provinces of Sri Lanka. Following a light microscopy examination in 2001, it was initially thought that the rains were coloured by fallout from a hypothetical meteor burst, but a study commissioned by the Government of India concluded that the rains had been coloured by airborne spores from a locally prolific terrestrial green alga from the genus Trentepohlia. An international team later identified the exact species as Trentepohlia annulata.

The coloured rain of Kerala began falling on 25 July 2001, in the districts of Kottayam and Idukki in the southern part of the state. Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.Many more occurrences of the red rain were reported over the following ten days, and then with diminishing frequency until late September. According to locals, the first coloured rain was preceded by a loud thunderclap and flash of light, and followed by groves of trees shedding shrivelled grey "burnt" leaves. Shriveled leaves and the disappearance and sudden formation of wells were also reported around the same time in the area. It typically fell over small areas, no more than a few square kilometres in size, and was sometimes so localised that normal rain could be falling just a few meters away from the red rain. Red rainfalls typically lasted less than 20 minutes.[3] Each millilitre of rain water contained about 9 million red particles. Extrapolating these figures to the total amount of red rain estimated to have fallen, it was estimated that 50,000 kilograms (110,000 lb) of red particles had fallen on Kerala.


Story continues below !










The brownish-red solid separated from the red rain consisted of about 90% round red particles and the balance consisted of debris.[5] The particles in suspension in the rain water were responsible for the colour of the rain, which at times was strongly coloured red. A small percentage of particles were white or had light yellow, bluish grey and green tints. The particles were typically 4 to 10 µm across and spherical or oval. Electron microscope images showed the particles as having a depressed centre. At still higher magnification some particles showed internal structures.

Some water samples were taken to the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS) in India, where they separated the suspended particles by filtration. The pH (acidity) of the water was found to be around 7 (neutral). The electrical conductivity of the rainwater showed the absence of any dissolved salts. Sediment (red particles plus debris) was collected and analysed by the CESS using a combination of ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and wet chemical methods. The major elements found are listed below. The CESS analysis also showed significant amounts of heavy metals, including nickel (43 ppm), manganese (59 ppm), titanium (321 ppm), chromium (67ppm) and copper (55 ppm). Louis and Kumar used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the red solid and showed that the particles were composed of mostly carbon and oxygen, with trace amounts of silicon and iron. A CHN analyser showed content of 43.03% carbon, 4.43% hydrogen, and 1.84% nitrogen. J. Thomas Brenna in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University conducted carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses using a scanning electron microscope with X-ray micro-analysis, an elemental analyser, and an isotope ratio (IR) mass spectrometer. The red particles collapsed when dried, which suggested that they were filled with fluid. The amino acids in the particles were analysed and seven were identified (in order of concentration): phenylalanine, glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, and arginine. The results were consistent with a marine origin or a terrestrial plant that uses a C4 photosynthetic pathway.




you might be interested


K2 Pakistan

Shroud of Turin

Waterfalls Rio Tulija

Plitvice Lakes

Pillars of weathering

The Ancient City of Mes Aynak

Door to Hell

Rio de Janeiro

Blue Belize Hole

Mount Nemrut

Santorini

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Lost Heracleion City

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Tutankhamun Mummy

Statue of Zeus at Olympia

Machu Picchu

Twin Town

Nasca Lines

Red Rain

Valley of the Kings

Iron Pillar Delhi

Bermuda Triangle

Underwater Pyramids off Cuba

Lencois Mranhenses Brasil

Taj Mahal

Vimana Flying Machine

Alien Skulls ?

Angkor Wat

El Chupacabra

Largest Crab Ever

Pamukkale

Acropolis of Athens

3,800 year old mummy Xiahoe

Crystal Underwater Pyramid Cuba

Underwater Cancun

Underwater Museum Cancún Mexico

The Sahara Desert

Ancient Atomic Bomb India

Mount Rushmore

Borobudur Temple

Reed Flute Cave

Timbuktu

Bagan Myanmar

Memnon Colossi

Antarctica

Aurora

Arizona Wave

Kittiwake Shipwreck

Banaue Rice Terraces

Area 51

Victoria Falls

Leshan Giant Buddha China

Grand Canyon

Kukulkan Pyramid Chichen Itza

Natural Zhangjiaje

Great Pyramid of Giza

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Everglades Park

200 yo mummy not dead

GREAT SPHINX OF GIZA

Ayers Rock

The Great Wall of China

Two Headed Snake

Spontaneous combustion

Terracotta Army

Blue Neon Waves

Hitler fled to Argentina

KAMPUNG KUANTAN FIREFLIES

Lost Kingdom Of Cleopatra

Angel Falls

Black Hole

Sigiriya Sri Lanka

Fly Geyser

Famous Petra

Yellowstone Park

Stonehenge Stones

Lighthouse of Alexandria

Katmai Crater Lake

Columnar Basalt

Parícutin Vulcan

Tunguska Explosion Russia

Easter Island Secrets

Leaning Tower of Pisa

Stone Forest

Pompeii After Eruption

Giant Stone Balls

Sailing Stones

Colossus of Rhodes

The Wonder Cave

Valley of Love Ireland

Zhangye Danxia

Wonder Rock

Colosseum Rome Italy

The Matterhorn

Ark of the Covenant




Stonehenge
Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria
GREAT SPHINX OF GIZA
Leaning Tower of Pisa
Underwater Museum Cancún Mexico
Crystal Underwater Pyramid Cuba
Pompeii After Eruption
Underwater Pyramids off Cuba
Rio de Janeiro
Blue Belize Hole
Easter Island Secrets
Lencois Mranhenses Brasil
Colosseum Rome Italy
Leshan Giant Buddha China
Valley of Love Ireland
Kukulkan Pyramid Chichen Itza
The Great Wall of China
Underwater Cancun
Machu Picchu
Grand Canyon
Angkor Wat
Valley of the Kings
Angel Falls
Yellowstone
Sahara Desert
Matterhorn Mountain
Aurora
Victoria Falls
Parícutin
Pamukkale
Lost Heracleion City
Black Hole
Largest Crab Ever
Ayers Rock
The Wonder Cave
Mount Rushmore
Memnon Colossi
3,800 year old mummy Xiahoe
Arizona Wave
Wonder Rock
Lost Kingdom Of Cleopatra
Tutankhamun Mummy
Twin Town
Red Rain
Borobudur Temple
Banaue Rice Terraces
Sailing Stones
Spontaneous combustion
Paracas Skulls
Famous Petra
Terracotta Army
Kittiwake Shipwreck
Waterfalls Rio Tulija
Fly Geyser
K2 Pakistan
Natural Zhangjiaje
KAMPUNG KUANTAN FIREFLIES
Stone Forest
Katmai Crater Lake
Reed Flute Cave
Bagan Myanmar
Sigiriya Sri Lanka
Columnar Basalt
Blue Neon Waves
Bermuda Triangle
Shroud of Turin
Nasca Lines
Ark of the Covenant
El Chupacabra
Area 51
Iron Pillar Delhi
Tunguska Explosion Russia
Door to Hell
Everglades Park
Taj Mahal
Timbuktu
Zhangye Danxia
Two Headed Snake
Acropolis of Athens
Plitvice Lakes
200 yo mummy not dead
Pillars of weathering
Antarctica
Santorini
Hitler fled to Argentina
Ancient Atomic Bomb India
Mount Nemrut
Vimana Flying Machine
The Ancient City of Mes Aynak
Giant Stone Balls



back to top