Mystery Wonders
Pamukkale

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Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey. The city contains hot springs and travertines, terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year. Travertine terrace formations at Pamukkale, Turkey. May 21, 2011 The ancient Greco-Roman and Byzantine city of Hierapolis was built on top of the white "castle" which is in total about 2,700 metres (8,860 ft) long, 600 m (1,970 ft) wide and 160 m (525 ft) high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli, 20 km away. Tourism is and has been a major industry. People have bathed in its pools for thousands of years. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Hierapolis, causing considerable damage. An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools. Wearing shoes in the water is prohibited to protect the deposits.

Pamukkale's terraces are made of travertine, a sedimentary rock deposited by water from the hot springs. In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature ranges from 35 °C (95 °F) to 100 °C (212 °F).[citation needed] The water that emerges from the spring is transported 320 metres (1,050 ft)[citation needed] to the head of the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section 60 to 70 metres (200 to 230 ft) long covering an expanse of 24 metres (79 ft) to 30 metres (98 ft). When the water, supersaturated with calcium carbonate, reaches the surface, carbon dioxide de-gasses from it, and calcium carbonate is deposited. The depositing continues until the carbon dioxide in the water balances the carbon dioxide in the air.[citation needed] Calcium carbonate is deposited by the water as a soft jelly,[citation needed] but this eventually hardens into travertine. This reaction is affected by the weather conditions, ambient temperature, and the flow duration. Precipitation continues until the carbon dioxide in the thermal water reaches equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Measurements made at the source of the springs find atmospheric levels of 725 mg/l carbon dioxide, by the time this water flows across the travertines, this figure falls to 145 mg/l. Likewise calcium carbonate falls from 1200 mg/l to 400 mg/l and calcium 576.8 mg/l to 376.6 mg/l. From these results it is calculated that 499.9 mg of CaCO3 is deposited on the travertine for every liter of water. This means that for a flow rate of 1 l/s of water 43,191 grams (1,523.5 oz) are deposited daily. The average density of a travertine is 1.48 g/cm3 implying a deposit of 29.2 dm3. Given that the average flow of the water is 465.2 l/s this implies that it can whiten 13,584 square metres (146,220 sq ft) a day, but in practice this area coverage is difficult to attain. These theoretical calculations indicate that up to 4.9 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi) it can be covered with a white deposit of 1 millimetre (0.039 in) thickness.


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Pamukkale is one of Turkey’s top attractions and a precious in the world with its cotton-look terraces. The underground water once gave life to the ancient city of Hierapolis now helps Pamukkale be one of the most important thermal centers of Turkey. Tourists and locals visit Pamukkale and Hierapolis frequently not only for its extraordinary look and its ancient history but also for wellness. Scientifically proven to cure many diseases, the waters attract people and there are many thermal hotels in the area that serve 12 months a year.

Pamukkale, which has been used as a spa since the second century BC, literally means "cotton castle" in Turkish. The travertine features have their origins in the shifting of a fault in the valley of the Menderes river (between here and Denizli). As the fault shifted, very hot springs with a very high mineral content (notably chalk) arose at this location. Apart from the slightly radioactive minerals, the calcium and hydrogen carbonate react to create calcium carbonate (also known as travertine) and limestone. This is what gives Pamukkale its whiteness and created the pools. It can get quite hot in summer, a hat and especially sunglasses will certainly be very helpful against the sun and the reflecting sun rays from the chalky cascades. On the other hand, the cold winter climate could make the experience slightly uncomfortable. Climbing up the cascades barefoot, with cold water running downstream will be a tough task

The surreal, brilliant white travertine terraces and warm, limpid pools of Pamukkale hang, like the petrified cascade of a mighty waterfall, from the rim of a steep valley side in Turkey’s picturesque southwest. Truly spectacular in its own right, the geological phenomenon that is Pamukkale, literally "Cotton Castle" in Turkish, is also the site of the remarkably well-preserved ruins of the Greek-Roman city of Hierapolis. With such a unique combination of natural and man-made wonders it’s little wonder that Pamukkale-Hierapolis has been made a Unesco World Heritage site. With over two million visitors annually, it is also Turkey’s single most visited attraction.

The best way to enjoy an uncrowded visit is to spend the night in Pamukkale village, which has plenty of accommodation (see below), then explore the formations and ancient site the following morning. The vast majority of day-trippers don’t arrive until the afternoon after the long drive-in from the coast. Late-afternoon/dusk are especially busy. Pamukkale is also relatively uncrowded in winter (November through to March), especially on weekdays. It can, though, be cold and even snowy.




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Victoria Falls
Pillars of weathering
Pompeii After Eruption
Hitler fled to Argentina
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Lost Heracleion City
Black Hole
Fly Geyser
Parícutin
Vimana Flying Machine
Ark of the Covenant
Valley of Love Ireland
Lighthouse of Alexandria
Mount Nemrut
Santorini
Famous Petra
Bermuda Triangle
Door to Hell
Stone Forest
Natural Zhangjiaje
Iron Pillar Delhi
KAMPUNG KUANTAN FIREFLIES
Antarctica
Tunguska Explosion Russia
Underwater Cancun
Underwater Pyramids of Cuba
Banaue Rice Terraces
Sigiriya Sri Lanka
Two Headed Snake
Matterhorn Mountain
Angel Falls
Reed Flute Cave
Everglades Park
Bagan Myanmar
Easter Island Secrets
Columnar Basalt
Colosseum Rome Italy
Wonder Rock
Machu Picchu
The Great Wall of China
Area 51
Kittiwake Shipwreck
Arizona Wave
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
Sailing Stones
K2 Pakistan
Terracotta Army
Sahara Desert
Taj Mahal
Spontaneous combustion
Ayers Rock
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Great Pyramid of Giza
Underwater Museum Cancún Mexico
El Chupacabra
Red Rain
Acropolis of Athens
Paracas Skulls
Leshan Giant Buddha China
Nasca Lines
GREAT SPHINX OF GIZA
Stonehenge
Ancient Atomic Bomb India
Tutankhamun Mummy
Valley of the Kings
Largest Crab Ever
Lost Kingdom Of Cleopatra
Waterfalls Rio Tulija
Grand Canyon
Angkor Wat
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Pamukkale
Rio de Janeiro
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Twin Town
Aurora
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Zhangye Danxia
Leaning Tower of Pisa
3,800 year old mummy Xiahoe










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